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Friday December 9th, 2022

Sri Lanka banks cut foreign borrowings, see more deposit dollarization

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka’s banks have sharply cut foreign borrowings over the past year, official data show as the country ran out of rating space after seven years of state expansion and monetary indiscipline.

State and private commercial bank borrowing heavily to abroad to buy dollar denominated Sri Lanka Development Bonds, give offshore banking unit loans to the government after 2015 which expanded from 17 to 20 percent of GDP over 5 years.

State-run Ceylon Petroleum Corporation also borrowed each time money was printed to suppress rates, under ‘flexible inflation targeting’.

Meanwhile some banks also bought discounted international sovereign bonds as foreign investors dumped them.

As downgrades came swiftly in 2020 towards CCC with money printing ratcheted up, banks lost the ability to borrow abroad. They also could not renew maturing loans as counterparty funding limits were cut.

Short term foreign currency borrowings of banks had peaked at 4.6 billion US dollars in the third quarter of 2020, central bank data show and had fallen to 1,442 billion US dollars by the first quarter of 2021 in a steep correction.

Long term loans which were around 1.5 billion US dollars in the first quarter of 2020 fell to 1,072 million by the first quarter of 2021.

Short term currency and deposits of commercial banks went up from about billion US dollars in the first quarter of 2020 to around 4.3 billion US dollars by the first quarter of 2022.

Sri Lanka in 2020 introduced special deposit schemes also to draw foreign funds.

Meanwhile some who had invested in SLDBs had also started to pull out fearing a hair-cut.

Data show that foreign borrowings of banks ratcheted up in the 2015/2016 and 2018 currency crises which were triggered money printed to suppress interest rates under ‘flexible’ inflation targeting, a highly unstable monetary regime peddled by Western Mercantilists to third world countries with ‘fear of floating’.

Sri Lanka also has a fear of hard-pegging.

Sri Lanka expanded the state from 2015 to 20 percent of GDP from 2017 after abandoning spending based consolidation (cost cutting) under revenue based consolidation despite having a bloated state and an oversized military.


Revenue based consolidation (expanding the state with a higher level of taxes) as well as borrowings have long been advocated by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna and is also generally followed by other leftists and American progressives.

During repeated currency crises under ‘flexible’ inflation targeting up to 2019, Sri Lanka also borrowed heavily through International Sovereign bonds as the country lost the ability to repay maturing debt in rupees, forcing foreign borrowings to go up at the gross financing level.

State-run Ceylon Petroleum Corporation also borrowed from commercial banks and suppliers as forex shortages from liquidity injections made under flexible inflation targeting created forex shortages making difficult for the CPC to convert rupees to dollars.

Flexible inflation targeting was coupled with deliberate money printing to target an output gap. The International Monetary Fund gave technical advice to calculate the output gap and target it with printed money.

After two currency crises depressed output Sri Lanka cut taxes in December 2019 saying there was a ‘persistent output gap’ and printed even more money than before. (Sri Lanka fiscal stimulus to close output gap)

In 2019 as the impact of state expansion under revenue based fiscal consolation and the foreign borrowings under flexible monetary policy became clear, analysts warned that the country would soon run out rating space and to discontinue unrestrained monetary policy.


Sri Lanka needs monetary discipline to avoid further downgrades: Bellwether

“Sri Lanka is a country that had mostly kept monetary stability in the worst years of the war with the help of the ideology then prevailing,” EN’s economic columnist Bellwether warned in December 2019 as money printing began around August in a sign of things to come.

“But now each new episode of monetary indiscipline is costing the country one notch in the rating scale.

“Sri Lanka will soon run out of rating space to tap capital markets if the flexible exchange rate/call money rate targeting continues in the next recovery space.

“Sri Lanka will face credit downgrades and possible sovereign default of dollar debt unless the highly unstable discretionary ‘flexible exchange rate’ is restrained and some monetary discipline is brought in.

“Pakistan, whose central bank also prints money with a peg, and frequently runs to the IMF now has a B- rating. But B- is barely above CCC.

“From two levels below investment grade in 2005, Sri Lanka is now a little above CCC, which is a distressed debt level. It is not a place to take monetary risks in particular.

“The central bank and others are talking about the need to get down interest rates,” the column which was written before the 2019 elections but money printing through outright purchases had started around August of the year said.

“That is not re-asssuring.

“It is doubtful whether China will give loans like earlier to boost growth as it is having its own troubles. China’s flexible exchange rate is taking a toll, as are state owned enterprises. However China may give debt relief to Sri Lanka.

“If rates are cut further and money is printed, the recovery in 2020 will be short-lived or not at all, and another currency crisis will be generated and downgrades will follow.”

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Sri Lanka shares fall on profit taking after nine sessions

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka shares slipped on Friday after gaining for nine straight sessions reverting from its highest gain in more than seven weeks on profit taking, brokers said.

“Bourse regressed to red ending the 9-day winning streak as investors resorted to book profits in blue chip counters,” First Capital Market Research said in it’s daily note.

The main All Share Price Index (ASPI) closed 0.54 percent or 47.84 points lower at 8,843.90.

The market witnessed a turnover of 1.6 billion rupees, lower than this year’s daily average turnover of 2.9 billion rupees.

The market saw a net foreign inflow of 1 million rupees. The total net foreign inflow stood at 22 billion rupees so far for this year.

The Paris Club group of creditor nations has proposed a 10-year debt moratorium on Sri Lankan debt and 15 years of debt restructuring as a formula to resolve the island nation’s prevailing currency crisis.

The government is in discussions with Asian Development Bank (ADB) and World Bank to get loans of 1.9 billion US dollars after a reform program with the International Monetary Fund is approved.

A policy loan now being discussed with the World Bank may bring around 700 million US dollars, Coomaraswamy told a business forum organized by CT CLSA Securities, a Colombo-based brokerage.

The Asian Development Bank may also give around 1.2 billion US dollars most of which will be budget support, he said.

In the last few sessions, market gained after the Central bank governor said interest rates should eventually ease despite the fears of a domestic debt restructuring as inflation falls, increased liquidity in dollar markets, and the inter-bank liquidity improves.

The more liquid index S&P SL20 closed 0.59 percent or 16.77 points lower at 2,827.72.

So far in December ASPI gained 2.2 percent.

The ASPI gained 0.5 percent in November after losing 13.4 percent in October.

It has lost 27.6 percent year-to-date after being one of the world’s best stock markets with an 80 percent return last year when large volumes of money were printed.

John Keells Holdings pulled the index down to close at 1.5 percent lower at 147 rupees.

Aitken Spence lost 2.0 percent to close at 141 rupees and Commercial Bank closed 1.4 percent down at 50.50 rupees a share. (Colombo/Dec09/2022)


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Sri Lanka bond yields end higher, kerb dollar Rs370/371

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka bonds yields ended up and the T-bills eased on active trade on Friday, dealers said.

The US dollar was 370/371 rupees in the kerb.

“The bond rates went up, however more interest was seen in the short term bills by the investors” dealers said.

A bond maturing on 01.05.2024 closed at 31.90/32.20 percent on Friday, up from 31.25/70 percent at Thursday’s close.

A bond maturing on 15.05.2026 closed at 30.30/31.30 percent steady from 30.30/31.00 percent.

The three-month T-bills closed at 30.75/31.30 percent, down from 32.00/32.25 percent.

The Central Bank’s guidance peg for interbank transactions was at 363.18 rupees against the US dollar unchanged.

Commercial banks offered dollars for telegraphic transfers between 371.78 and 372.00 for small transactions, data showed.

Buying rates are between 361.78 – 362.00 rupees. (Colombo/Dec 09/2022)

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Foreign minister, US ambassador discuss future assistance to crisis-hit Sri Lanka

ECONOMYNEXT — In a meeting in Colombo, Sri Lanka Foreign Minister Ali Sabry and US Ambassador to Sri Lanka Julie Chung discussed ways in which the United States can continue to support Sri Lanka going forward, the Ambassador said.

Chung tweeted Friday December 09 afternoon that the two officials had reflected on the “twists and turns” of 2022, at the meeting.

Minister Sabry was recently in Washington D.C. where he US Secretary of State Antony Blinken.

A foreign ministry statement said the two officials held productive discussions at the Department of State on December 02 on further elevating bilateral relations in diverse spheres, including the 75th anniversary of diplomatic relations which will be marked in 2023.

Incidentally, Sri Lanka also celebrates the 75th anniversary of its independence from the British in 2023, and President Ranil Wickremesinghe has given himself and all parties that represent parliament a deadline to find a permanent solution to Sri Lanka’s decades-long ethnic issue.

The US has been vocal about Sri Lanka addressing concerns about its human rights record since the end of the civil war in 2009 and was a sponsor of the latest resolution on Sri Lanka passed by the United Nations Human Rights Council. Unlike previous resolutions, this year’s iteration makes specific reference to the country’s prevailing currency crisis and calls for investigations on corruption allegations.

In the lead up to the UNHRC sessions in Geneva, Minister Sabry Sri Lanka’s government under then new president Wickremesinghe does not want any confrontation with any international partner but will oppose any anti-constitutional move forced upon the country.

On the eve of the sessions on October 06, Sabry said countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, who led the UNHRC core group on Sri Lanka, are greatly influenced by domestic-level lobbying by pressure groups from the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora.

These pronouncements notwithstanding, the Wickremesnghe government has been making inroads to the West as well as India and Japan, eager to obtain their assistance in seeing Sri Lanka through the ongoing crisis.

The island nation has entered into a preliminary agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for an extended fund facility of 2.9 billion dollars to be disbursed over a period of four years, subject to a successful debt restructure programme and structural reforms.

Much depends on whether or not China agrees to restructure Sri Lanka’s 7.4 billion dollar outstanding debt to the emerging superpower. Beijing’s apparent hesitance to go for a swift restructure prompted Tamil National Alliance MP Shanakiyan Rasamanickam to warn of possible “go home, China” protests in Colombo, similar to the wave of protests that forced the exit of former pro-China President Gotabaya Rajapaksa.

The TNA will be a key player in upcoming talks with the Wickremesinghe government on a solution to Sri Lanka’s ethnic issue. (Colombo/Dec09/2022)

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