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Thursday December 8th, 2022

Sri Lanka could benefit from campaign to entice expat skills: economist

ECONOMYNEXT- Sri Lanka can make major gains from an aggressive campaign to entice professionals living abroad coupled with visa de-regulation, to bring new skills and international business links in line with other fast growing nations, an economist said.

"We have to take aggressive measures to keep migrant professionals linked to our economy,” Bilesha Weeraratne, an economist at Colombo-based Institute of Policy Studies said.

"It can become a cycle and benefit a lot of people," Weeraratne said.

At the moment, the contribution from most migrant professionals is that they come back once a year to visit, and spend like tourists before returning to their new country of residence, she said.

Professionals living abroad could be enticed to give financial assistance and expertise for projects in Sri Lanka, find new opportunities for locals to trade and create business links and find investment partners, she said.

 Nobody’s Baby

Weeraratne said a creative promotional campaign could be launched with the help of a professional advertising agency.

"There is very little done to get these professionals to contribute. There needs to be a campaign,” she said.

"Right now it’s nobody’s baby, whether it’s the Foreign Employment Ministry or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.”

"It’s a thorny issue. With the Tamil Diaspora, nobody wants to touch it, but there’s a lot of potential."

The Foreign Affairs Ministry had attempted to take initiative in 2015, but had drawn criticism for it.

The migration of professionals outward has accelerated over the past decade, reaching a compounded annual growth rate of 8.4 percent.

In the 10-year period up to 2017, 46,735 professionals have migrated from Sri Lanka for foreign employment, according to official data, compared to 12,807 a decade earlier.

Around 93 percent of the professionals migrating are males.

Sri Lanka’s rupee has also depreciated rapidly in recent years, which destroys real wages making for both brain drain and brain drawn, while also killing capital needed to boost labour productivity, some analysts have said.

Competition

Weeraratne said foreign governments give family visas and overseas companies offer attractive incentives, such as accommodation allowances, in addition to high pay, to bring in professionals and their families to help their economies.

“The bait is that the whole family can come. Most often, due to assortative mating, a professional’s wife will also be a professional,” she said.

“Ultimately Sri Lanka loses two people, as well as the second generation, because it’s also likely that their children will also be highly skilled and professionals.”

Many of the professional migrants are in the financial sector, taking up jobs in the Middle East, while a number of hospitality industry persons have also been seen leaving for the Middle East and the Maldives, Weeraratne said.

Sri Lanka should regain their expertise if it is to become the regional services hub the government is aspiring it to become, she said.

Various tactics can be used to entice the migrants, she said.

"Some people value family. Then you have to find ways to entice them through that," Weeraratne said, speaking from personal experience.

"Most often, these families don’t rely on remittances. It’s the general economy that benefits from it," she said.

Appeals could be made to other professionals to give back to an economy which helped them through free education, she said.

"Push for the soft spot."

 Nationalist Visas

However at the moment, Sri Lanka’s visa rule makes it extremely expensive for a foreign resident Sri Lankan to come back, unless the spouse and children are also Sri Lankan passport holders.

Even if an expatriate Sri Lankan who is married to a foreign passport holder comes back for a job in the home country – usually at a lower salary – his or her spouse cannot work due to a nationalist visa system.

Weeraratne said that visa processes need to be more open to facilitate the involvement of professionals in activities in Sri Lanka.

"Our visa categories, unless they come settle down, we can’t offer them an employment situation," she said.

"There has to be some flexibility there where they can work from offshore, or do small stints where they don’t have to fill out all these forms for work. When it’s such a hassle, they don’t want to come.”

"There has to be some conducive and inviting mechanism so that they get attached and contribute to the economy even though they’re not here." (Colombo/Sept27/2018)

 

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Sri Lanka in deep talent drain in latest currency crisis

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka businesses are facing a drain of talent, top business executives said as the country suffers the worst flexible exchange rate crisis in the history of its intermediate regime central bank and people lose hope.

“We are seeing a trend towards migrating,” Krishan Balendra, Chairman of Sri Lanka’s John Keells Holdings told an economic policy forum organized by the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce.

“We have seen an impact mainly on the tourist hotels side, quite an exodus of staff (migrating) to countries we have not seen in the past. 

“We have seen people go to Scotland, Ireland. It has usually been the Middle East and Maldives. Australia seems like a red hot labor market at the moment.”

Sri Lanka’s rupee collapsed from 200 to 360 to the US dollar after macro-economists printed money to suppress rates.

Sri Lanka operates a ‘flexible exchange rate’ where errors in targeting interest rates are compensated by currency depreciation especially after the 1980s.

Classical economists and analysts have called for the power to mis-target rates and operate dual anchor conflicting monetary regimes should be taken away to prevent future crisis.

Currency crises are problems associated with flexible exchange rate central banks which are absent in hard pegs and clean floats.

“Something new we are seeing is that older people, even those in their 50s, which was a surprise, are looking at migrating,” Balendra said.

Businesses are trying to retain talent as real wages collapse.

Balendra said as businesses they see some stability returning and based on past experience growth is likely to resume, and they were communicating with the workers.

“We have a degree of conviction that the economy should get better, its the stability phase now and it will get better going forward so without the way our businesses are placed we should see good growth,” Balendra said.

“We can’t chase compensation that’s just not practical and we are not trying to do that especially if people are looking to immigrate but what we can do is show the career opportunities in the backdrop of the situation that people would rather stay here because its home.” 

Sri Lanka unit of Heineken says it is also trying to convince workers not to leave, with more success.

“We are all facing the effects of brain drain and it’s not just the lower levels… What we are doing is a balance of daring and caring,” Maud Meijboom-van Wel – Managing Director / CEO, Heineken Lanka Ltd told the forum.

“Why I say daring is, you have to be clear in what you can promise people, when you make promises you have to walk the talk. So with the key talents and everyone you need to have the career and talent conversations.

“I am a bit lucky because I am running a multinational company so my career path goes beyond Sri Lanka so I can say if you acquire certain skills here, then you can move out of here and then come back too, that is a bit easier for me but it starts with having a real open conversation with walking the talk – dare and care.” (Colombo/Dec7/2022)

 

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Despite losses, Sri Lanka to resume “park & ride” transport after complaints  

ECONOMYNEXT –  Sri Lanka’s state-run Transport Board will resume its loss-making City Bus service from January 15, 2022 Cabinet Spokesman Bandula Gunawardena said, after the service abruptly discontinued with the state-run firm’s director board citing losses.

The City Bus service was introduced in 2021, under the government of former President Gotabaya Rajapaksa, from Makubura to Pettah and Bambalapitiya.

The service was started to reduce the number of automobiles travelling to and from Colombo and suburbs by providing a comfortable, convenient and safe public bus transportation for passengers and riders who use cars and motorcycles as their means of transportation.

During the time period in which the service was initiated, there were 800 hundred vehicles that would be parked and would use the system, Gunawardena, who is also the Transport Minister, said.

The service was later collapsed due to inconsistencies in scheduling and it was completely stopped after

“Without informing the Secretary or the Minister of the relevant Ministry, the Board of Directors have come to a conclusion that this is loss making route and must be halted,” Gunawardena said.

“The users of the City Bus service brought to our notice and therefore I gave the Secretary to the Ministry of Transport the approval to start the City Bus service from January 15.”

“If we stop all loss making transport services then massive inconveniences will occur to the people in far parts of the island.”

The chairman of the state run Ceylon Transport Board has been asked to handover the resignation letter by the Minister Gunawardana citing that the head has failed to implement a policy decision approved by the government. (Colombo/ Dec 06/2022)

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Sri Lanka may see rates falling next year: President

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka’s interest rates are high and hurting small businesses in particular but interest rates are required to maintain stability, President Ranil Wickremesinghe said.

“One is, all of you want to know what’s going to happen to the interest rates?,” President Wickremesinghe told an economic policy forum organized by the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce.

“I wish I know. The governor has told me that the inflation has peaked. It’s coming down. You all understandably want some relief with the interest rates to carry business on.”

“I understand that and appreciate the viewpoint. It’s not easy to carry business on with such high interest rates. On the other hand, the Central Bank also has to handle the economy. So maybe sometimes early next year we will have a meeting of minds of both these propositions.”

Sri Lanka’s interest rates are currently at around 30 percent but not because the central bank is keeping it up. The central bank’s overnight policy rate is only 15.5 percent but the requirement to finance the budget deficit and roll over debt is keeping rates up.

Rates are also high due to a flaw in the International Monetary Fund’s debt workout framework where there is no early clarity on a whether or not domestic debt will be re-structured.

After previous currency crises, rates come down after an IMF deal is approved and foreign loans resume and confidence in the currency is re-stabilished following a float.

This time however there has been no clear float, though the external sector is largely stable and foreign funding is delayed until a debt re-structure deal is made.

Sri Lanka’s external troubles usually come because the bureaucrats do not believe market rates are correct when credit demand picks up and mis-uses monetary tools given in 1950 by the parliament to suppress rates, blowing the balance of payments apart.

The result of suppressed rates by the central bank are steep spikes in rates to stop the resulting currency crisis.

A reserve collecting central bank has little or no leeway to control interest rates (monetary policy independence) without creating external troubles, which is generally expressed as the ‘impossible trinity of monetary policy objectives’.

However, it has not prevented officials from trying repeatedly to suppress rates, perhaps expecting different results.

After suppressed rates – supposedly to help businesses – trigger currency crises, the normalization combined with a currency collapse leads to impoverishment of the population.

The impoverishment through depreciation leads to a consumption shock, which also leads to revenue losses in businesses.

The suppressed rates then lead to bad loans.

In the 2020/2022 currency crisis the sovereign default has also led to more problems at banks. Several state enterprises also cannot pay back loans.

“…[T]he bad debt that is being carried by the banks is mainly from the private sector or the government sector,” President Wickremesinghe said.

“Keep the government sector aside. We’re dealing with it. How do you handle it? Look, one of our major areas of are the small and medium industries. You can’t allow them to collapse, but they’re in a bad way.”

Classical economists and analysts have called for new laws to block the ability to central bank to suppress rates in the first place so that currency crises and depreciation does not take place in the first place.

Then politicians like Wickremesinghe do not have to take drastic and unpopular measures to fix crises and there will be stability like in East Asia.

Sri Lanka had stability until 1950 when the central bank was created by abolishing an East Asia style currency board. The currency board kept the country relatively stable through two World Wars and a Great Depression.

In 1948 after the war (WWII) was over “we stood second to Japan” Wickremesinghe said.

“But we started destroying it from the sixties and the seventies,” he said. :We started rebuilding an economy, which was affected by a (civil) war, and thereafter the way we went, is best not described here.”

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