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Sri Lanka’s IPS 2023 economic report on choices ahead

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka’s Institute of Policy Studies is to release its annual State of the Economy Report for 2023, as the country recovers from the worst case of macro-economic policy deployment in its history.

Sri Lanka defaulted in 2022 and its currency collapsed to 360 from 184 after two years of tax and rate cuts to close what growth-happy state economic bureaucrats said was a ‘persistent’ output gap.

Instead, the economy was hit by the worst contraction in post-independence history amid a loss of monetary stability and the stabilization policies that usually follow mis-targeted rates.

“Sri Lanka’s journey from economic turmoil to stability is fraught with challenges, but it also offers opportunities for meaningful reform,” the IPS said in a statement.

“While macro-stabilisation measures are laying the foundation, the path to recovery must prioritise quality GDP growth that creates high-quality jobs.

“Achieving this requires addressing structural issues, strengthening social safety nets, and fostering cross-party consensus.

“As Sri Lanka navigates its economic challenges, making the right policy choices, coupled with accountable institutions, will be key to transforming its setback into a sustainable success.”

The report is to be released on October 17

The full statement is reproduced below:


Economic Policy Choices: From Stabilisation to Growth

Sri Lanka has faced a turbulent economic journey in recent years, with 2022 witnessing an unprecedented crisis marked by a staggering 8.7% GDP contraction. The economy slowly but steadily pulled back from the abyss over the course of 2023. Notably, the Sri Lankan rupee has stabilised and even appreciated by 12%, inflation has dropped to 1.3%, import restrictions are being eased, and interest rates are on the decline.
These positive developments are a result of the implementation of economic stabilisation measures and groundwork for institutional and regulatory reforms to support future growth. These measures have critics concerned about the intense economic pain that falls on those least able to cope with the fallout. As a country that faces years of weak growth, the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka’s (IPS’) Sri Lanka: State of the Economy 2023 report, explores the complex policy choices Sri Lanka faces as it navigates the path to economic recovery.

The Rocky Road to Recovery

In 2023, Sri Lanka’s economy is expected to contract further, though at a slower pace compared to the previous year. Differing medium term forecasts from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) point to the complexities of accurately predicting the future of an economy that has suffered a sudden and sharp crisis. In 2023, the IMF predicts a contraction of -3%, while the CBSL holds a more optimistic view at -2%. Both anticipate a return to positive growth in 2024, but uncertainties linger due to social and political opposition to austerity policies, ongoing debt negotiations, and volatile global economic conditions driven by geopolitical tensions.

Following the severe 8.7% GDP contraction in 2022, Sri Lanka embarked on immediate and stringent measures to stabilise its economy. These measures included securing the 17th IMF bailout and implementing substantial increases in value-added taxes (VAT), personal income taxes, energy prices, and a freeze on public sector wages. With shortfalls in anticipated revenue collections, further fiscal tightening measures cannot be ruled out.

Addressing Socioeconomic Challenges

Faced with growth-inhibiting tough austerity measures, concerns persist regarding the potential exacerbation of inequality and poverty. Sri Lanka witnessed a doubling of national poverty rates to 25% and a tripling of urban poverty to 15% in 2022. Escalating inflation has eroded household savings and real wages, prompting many skilled professionals to seek opportunities abroad, potentially resulting in a brain drain and the loss of a generation of young workers.

Sri Lanka’s economic challenges are further compounded by disparities in the education and health sectors, which require substantial resources for meaningful reforms. The delicate task of balancing fiscal constraints with the need for improved social protection programmes looms large.

Paving the Way for Sustainable Growth

To achieve sustainable economic growth, Sri Lanka must not only stabilise its economy but also address long-standing structural problems. The country’s overemphasis on infrastructure investment with borrowed funds needs to shift towards enhancing global competitiveness in exports. In a world marked by US-China tensions, forging partnerships and aligning industrial and trade policies is vital. Currently, Sri Lanka lags in global value chain (GVC) activity, posing a challenge to economic diversification.

Over-reliance on low-skilled, informal jobs, where more than half of the workforce is engaged in low-skilled jobs, hampers progress towards a competitive and productivity-driven economy. Comprehensive reforms in education, improved access to higher education, and bridging skills gaps in sectors like Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) are essential to create well-paying jobs and ensure long-term economic resilience. Additionally, addressing corruption, enhancing accountability, and improving public service delivery are vital for building public trust and support for reforms.

Building Consensus for Transformation

As Sri Lanka grapples with its economic challenges, presidential elections loom on the horizon in 2024. Traditional politics may drive opposition to austerity and reforms in pursuit of votes. However, regardless of the election outcome, the country’s fragile economic situation will likely necessitate continued adherence to fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate policies outlined in the IMF programme. What remains uncertain is the fate of complementary reforms aimed at enhancing economic efficiency and productivity, which might be delayed or abandoned due to political compulsions.

The more contentious reforms may slow down or stall altogether between now and the 2024 elections, to be addressed afterward, depending on electoral outcomes. These possibilities introduce significant uncertainty at a time when economic confidence has already been severely undermined. The solution and best hopes are to build cross-party consensus on areas that do need fixing.


Sri Lanka’s journey from economic turmoil to stability is fraught with challenges, but it also offers opportunities for meaningful reform. While macro-stabilisation measures are laying the foundation, the path to recovery must prioritise quality GDP growth that creates high-quality jobs. Achieving this requires addressing structural issues, strengthening social safety nets, and fostering cross-party consensus. As Sri Lanka navigates its economic challenges, making the right policy choices, coupled with accountable institutions, will be key to transforming its setback into a sustainable success.

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Sri Lanka beats key IMF program targets for March 2024 amid rupee stability

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka has exceeded key quantitative targets set in an International Monetary Fund program for March 2024, based on preliminary data the Washington based agency said in a report.

The March data are not performance criteria on which reviews are conducted but are indicative targets which shows the progress of the program and are a stepping stone for a September review based on June data.

An indicative target for the primary balance (roughly overall deficit minus interest costs), was assessed at 316 billion rupees more than four times the 70 billion rupee target set in the program.

Primary balance can be a big surplus if the interest bill is high and capital expenditure is cut and is a type of crisis management tool after a central bank triggers a currency crisis by cutting rates with inflationary liquidity tools.

However, Sri Lanka’s Treasury has also kept a lid on most current spending. A state salary hike is however due after the currency collapse made life difficult for everyone.

Meanwhile more taxes have been collected from the people to finance the island’s bloated state.

A 750 billion rupees central government tax revenue floor has been exceeded to reach 837 billion rupees.

Central bank credit to government (outstanding stock) has been reduced to 2,691 billion rupees in March compared to a target of 2,800 billion rupees. In December the CB credit was calculated 2,742 billion rupees.

Net international reserves of the central bank were brought up to a negative 1,268 million US dollars exceeding the target of a negative 2,035 by almost 700 million dollars.

In order to collect foreign reserves, which is a type of appropriation of domestic savings of the people by the central bank (taking in deposits) and exporting it to the US and other countries to finance their deficits or by other agency debt in reserve currencies.

In order to collect such ‘deposits’ the central bank has to prevent them from being invested domestically.

It is achieved with deflationary policy through sell-downs of down its Treasuries holding to domestic banks or others, at a market rate, collecting interest from the government or repayments of re-finance credits, subject to any nominal changes in reserve money at a given exchange rate.

In 2024 the central bank allowed the exchange rate to appreciate, which can also reduce prices of traded goods boost real and nominal savings and make it easier to collect foreign reserves.

When domestic credit is weak it is easier to collect reserves. Reduced domestic credit and collection of reserves, including by private banks which then cannot be invested domestically, can push the external current account into surplus.

The central bank also met a 5 percent 12-month inflation target, with an achievement of 4.3 percent.

Sri Lanka’s economy grew 5.3 percent despite reserve collections, amid the stability provided by the central bank.

There were no central bank purchases of Treasuries from the primary market.

However the central bank injected overnight and term money to banks (not on a net basis) showing how easy it is for a rate-obsessed monetary authority to get around the requirement and create external instability again as soon as private credit recovered.

The central bank also allowed excess liquidity from dollar purchase to remain unsterilized for an extended period under its ad hoc pegging arrangement, getting a short term falls in rates, but triggering pressure on the rupee as a result in May and June.

It is not possible to collect reserves with a free floating exchange rate. (Colombo/June15/2024)

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Sri Lanka GDP grows 5.3-pct in first quarter of 2024 amid monetary stability

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka’s gross domestic product grew 5.3 percent in the first quarter of 2024 data from the state statistics office showed as the central bank continued to refrain from generating monetary instability.

Instead of printing money to cut rates under ‘flexible inflation targeting’ and printing money to boost growth by taking into account ‘potential output’ as permitted by its new monetary law, the central bank ran deflationary policy and also allowed the rupee to appreciate.

“The Sri Lanka economy experienced a more favorable economic condition[s] in the first quarter 2024, when compared to the first quarter in the year 2023,” the Department of Census and Statistics said.

“The high inflation had prevailed in the first quarter of year 2023, gradually reduced to a lower level by the first quarter of 2024 and this low inflation incentivized the economy by providing inputs at [a] much lower price.

The agriculture sector grew 1.1 percent in the first quarter of 2024, after also growing 1.6 percent last year.

Industry grew 11.8 percent in the first quarter, against a 24.3 percent last year.

The economy grew amid falling prices, the statistics office said in sharp contrast to the Anglophone macroeconomic claim that inflation is needed to boost growth, on which Sri Lanka has 5-7 inflation target has apparently been set.

Related Sri Lanka central bank pushing for high inflation target to boost growth

“Among ‘Industrial activities’, coinciding with the decline in input prices, the ‘Construction industry’ grew by 14.2 percent, parallel to this, the ‘Mining and quarrying’ industry too expanded by 18.3 percent during this quarter,” the Statistics Department said.

Sr Lanka’s services sector grew 2.6 percent, against a decline of 4.6 percent recorded last year.

The International Monetary Fund has also urged the central bank to give priority to stability.

Sri Lanka dropped the stability mandate in the earlier monetary law which was violated after the end of a civil war to push the country into serial currency crises especially after the International Monetary Fund gave technical assistance to calculate potential output.

Related Sri Lanka has a corrupted inflation targeting, output gap targeting not in line with monetary law: Wijewardena

Sri Lanka survived a 30-year civil war by giving priority to a stability mandate despite shortcomings in its operational framework but defaulted in peacetime amid activist monetary policy which denied monetary stability to the people. (Colombo/June12/2024)

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Sri Lanka’s NPP notes five-point crisis for economic growth sans details

Former JVP MP Sunil Handunneththi

ECONOMYNEXT — The leftist National People’s Power (NPP) has identified five crises that need resolving for Sri Lanka’s economy to progress, much of which emphasise a production economy targeting export growth though sparse on the detail on resource allocation.

NPP spokesman and former parliamentarian Sunil Handunneththi speaking at an event in Mulaitivu on Thursday June 13 said Sri Lanka is grappling with firstly, a collapse of the production economy, second, a budget deficit, third, a balance of payment crisis which has, fourthly, created a debt crisis, and finally, a resultant gap between haves and have-nots.

“We must first understand the crisis. We reocgnise five main crises that have the same impact irrespective of differences between the north and south.

“The first is the collapse of the production economy. We can see this historically. Agriculture that used to be some 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) has now fallen to 8 percent. Essential food is imported. We cannot produce the rice needed for the small population here. Things that can be made here are also imported.

“Second is the income crisis. For the people, their expenses are twice their income. The budget deficit is two or three-fold every day. Banks cannot give loans to businesses and industries because the government takes funds to address the budget deficit. The government takes most of the people’s savings for this,” he said.

The balance of payment crisis Sri Lanka is facing the third crisis, according to Handunneththi, which has triggered a debt crisis, in turn leading to a crisis of income disparity among the people.

“Third is the balance of payments crisis. Imports are two or three fold export income. The government has to take 11 to 12 billion US dollars in loans from foreign countries. When GDP is 80 billion US dollars, debt has gone over 100.”

“All this creates a massive gap between haves and have-nots. Without finding solutions to these crisis, there is no point distributing goods,” he said.

Handunnethi’s remarks appear to be departure from the NPP’s anti-corruption rhetoric which had centred its economic development policy agenda primarily on fighting corruption.

‘Fighting corruption’ and ‘recovering stolen assets’ have been popular slogans since the Aragalaya protests in Sri Lanka and the NPP has made it its central theme in its bid for power. The leftist outfit had also adopted a position that’s cautiously critical of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the reforms the international lender has prescribed for Sri Lanka in exchange for a 2.9 billion-dollar bailout.

However, NPP leadership had recently acknowledged the need to continue the IMF programme since the agreement has already been signed.

The Marxist-Leninist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, which controls the NPP, though it was never in government barring a brief stint in an Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP)-led coalition in the early 2000s, has been instrumental in driving popular support against privatisation.

Three key policy pillars articulated by the JVP from 2001-2004 and embraced by mainstream politician Mahinda Rajapaksa’s administration in 2005 onward have been highlighted by experts.

From 2005, Sri Lanka halted privatisation, started recruiting tens of thousands of unemployed graduates into the public service every year with lifetime pensions, expanding an already bloated public sector and denying any benefit of a peace dividend to the country.

Sri Lanka also abandoned a price formula for fuel that had helped keep the rupee stable and inflation low from 2001 to 2003 even as global commodity prices went up from the ‘mother of all liquidity bubbles’ fired by the Federal Reserve from 2001.

From 2001 to 2003, state workers fell from 1.164 million to 1.043 million. By 2020, the public sector cadre has grown to 1.58 million with another batch of 53,000 unemployed graduates being paid tax money. (Colombo/Jun14/2024)

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